Effect of natural light spectrum and other artificial lighting in Birds as well as animals and plants
Annual reports released by the American Medical Association would announce that nighttime artificial lighting, especially street lights, above 3000K can adversely affect humans and animals. So, migratory birds following stars move to the wrong place because they can't find the moonlight due to artificial light. Also, hundreds of birds collide frequently and die finally at night towers. Nocturnal owls need to be active at night, but the night is too bright to survive as a nocturnal species. (Fig.1)
Fig.1. (A) light pollution photo-exhibition (Insomnia)
(B) Iguzzini (Owl wearing sunglasses)
Sidney A. Gauthreaux, Jr. and Carroll G. Belser, Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, mentioned that hundreds of species of birds typically migrate at night, and it is well known that fires and man-made lights attract birds during migration, particularly when the sky is cloudy and the ceiling is low. During fall migration they monitored flight behavior on 14 evenings near a television tower with red lights, near a television tower with white strobe lights, and over a control area that had no tower. They used an image intensifier to monitor birds flying overhead, and coded the flight behavior of migrants into the following categories: linear flight (straight) and nonlinear flight (pause-hover, curved, or circling). During the fall study the number of birds showing nonlinear flight near the tower with red lighting was significantly greater than those flying near the tower with white strobes. The greater number of birds near the tower with red lights is likely the result of "attraction" to the constantly illuminated lights on towers with red light arrays and the proportion of the time the birds showed nonlinear flight behavior. In general, all animals and plants, including humans, have biorhythms. Biorhythms caused by artificial light are disturbing not only the growth of animals and plants, but also physiology and reproductive activity. No one knows how the ecosystem disturbances caused by artificial lighting are further revealed, but the bottom line is that ecosystem disturbances can only occur constantly. (Fig.2)

Fig.2. Cities are affected by altered light environments, which are exploited by synanthropic species such as crows and some bat species.
Ref.: Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/NSNS/NRR—2017/1493
Jae Ho Lee, Ph.D 
* Next week’s topic : Light and Plants

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